#1: Driscoll, M. (2005). Psychology of Learning for Instruction (3rd ed.) (pp. 71-77). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

[Example] This chapter introduces the cognitive information processing system. Driscoll argues that the study of the development of complex behaviors (such as reading and language) could not be adequately explained by behaviorism. Development of the computer metaphor for cognitive processing in American psychology: Information is input, processed, and stored, and learned information is output. The model contains three basic stages (Sensory memory -> short-term/working memory -> long-term memory) as well as the processes involved in the movement between stages. Sensory memory holds very brief sensory information in order for it to be further processed. Working memory serves to make information ready for ‘long term storage or a response’ and has a limited storage/capacity (p75). Long term memory is a ‘permanent storehouse of information’ and has unlimited capacity (p75).

Both bottom-up and top-down processing occurs simultaneously (integrating new information with information already stored in long-term memory). An executive monitor/control process directs the processing that occurs (whether done intentionally or unconsciously). Implications for instruction: instruction should build upon learners’ prior knowledge and help make meaningful connections to prior knowledge.

 

#2: Guenther, R.K. (1998). Introduction and historical Overview. Human Cognition (pp. 1-27). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

[summarize the most important ideas and questions]

 

#3: Smith & Ragan (1999). Introduction to Instructional Design. Instructional Design (pp. 1-12). New York: Wiley.

[summarize the most important ideas and questions]

 

#4: Smith & Ragan (1999). Foundations of Instructional Design. Instructional Design (pp. 13-29). New York: Wiley.

[summarize the most important ideas and questions]

 

#5 (additional): Renkl, A., & Atkinson, R. K. (2003). Structuring the transition from example study to problem solving in cognitive skill acquisition: A Cognitive Load Perspective. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 15–22.

[I selected this article because… is I wanted to read about even more practical way to implement worked-out examples. What I discovered in this article was… ]

[summarize the most important ideas and questions]